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One such politician murdered by the Klan on the eve of the 1868 presidential election was Republican Congressman James M. Widespread violence in the south led to federal intervention by President Ulysses S. Nevertheless, white Democrats, calling themselves "Redeemers", regained control of the south state by state, sometimes using fraud and violence to control state elections.A deep national economic depression following the Panic of 1873 led to major Democratic gains in the North, the collapse of many railroad schemes in the South, and a growing sense of frustration in the North.After Reconstruction ended -- in effect rejected by the South -- the South remained a poverty-stricken "backwater" dependent on agriculture.White Southerners soon succeeded in re-establishing legal and political dominance over blacks through violence, intimidation and discrimination.This was followed by a period which white Southerners labeled "Redemption", during which white-dominated state legislatures enacted Jim Crow laws and, beginning in 1890, disenfranchised most blacks and many poor whites through a combination of constitutional amendments and electoral laws.The white Democratic Southerners' memory of Reconstruction played a major role in imposing the system of white supremacy and second-class citizenship for blacks, known as the age of Jim Crow.Johnson, a former Tennessee Senator and slave owner, followed a lenient policy toward ex-Confederates.Lincoln's last speeches show that he was leaning toward supporting the enfranchisement of all freedmen, whereas Johnson was opposed to this.
Meanwhile, "Redeemers", self-styled Conservatives (in close cooperation with a faction of the Democratic Party) strongly opposed reconstruction.
The end of Reconstruction was a staggered process, and the period of Republican control ended at different times in different states.
With the Compromise of 1877, military intervention in Southern politics ceased and Republican control collapsed in the last three state governments in the South.
The Democrats, who strongly opposed Reconstruction, regained control of the House of Representatives in 1874.
In 1877, as part of a Congressional bargain to elect Republican Rutherford B.
The subsequent 1866 election gave Republicans a majority in Congress, enabling them to pass the 14th Amendment, take control of Reconstruction policy, remove former Confederates from power, and enfranchise the freedmen. The Bureau protected the legal rights of freedmen, negotiated labor contracts, and set up schools and churches for them. In early 1866, Congress passed the Freedmen's Bureau and Civil Rights Bills and sent them to Johnson for his signature.